Thomas HOWARD,, 3rd Duke of Norfolk

Male 1473 - 1554  (81 years)

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  • Name Thomas HOWARD, 
    Suffix 3rd Duke of Norfolk 
    Born 4 Feb 1473  Kenninghall, Norfolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Died 25 Aug 1554  Kenninghall, Norfolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried 2 Oct 1554  Framlingham, Suffolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I16381  HOGAN, Laurel LaRue
    Last Modified 10 May 2018 

    Family Elizabeth DE STAFFORD,   b. Abt 1494, Abergavenny, Monmouthshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 30 Nov 1558, Lambeth, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 64 years) 
    Married Bef 8 Jan 1513 
    +1. Henry HOWARD, 3rd Earl of Surrey,   b. 19 Jan 1517, Hunsdon, Hertfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 19 Jan 1547, Tower of London, Tower Hill, London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 30 years)
     2. Lady Mary HOWARD,   b. Abt 1518, Blackmore, Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 29 Dec 1557, Saint Michael's, Framingham, Suffolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 39 years)
     3. Thomas HOWARD, 1st Viscount Howard of Bindon,   b. Abt 1520, London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 28 Jan 1582, Marnhull, Dorset, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 62 years)
     4. Dorothy HOWARD,   b. Abt 1521, Abergavenny, Monmouthshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown
     5. Edward HOWARD, 1st Baron Howard of Eserick, Knight,   b. Abt 1522, Eserick, Waltham, Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Aft 1546, Great Waltham, Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 25 years)
     6. Catherine HOWARD,   b. Abt 1522, Saltmarshe, Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Feb 1559, Saltmarsh, Howden, Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 37 years)
     7. Lady Muriel HOWARD,   b. Abt 1524, of , , England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown
    Last Modified 10 May 2018 08:06:00 
    Family ID F11187  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
    • «u»«b»Life Sketch«/u»«/b»

      130th Generation

      Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk KG PC (1473 – 25 August 1554) (Earl of Surrey from 1514, passed down from his father on his elevation to Dukedom of Norfolk) was a prominent Tudor politician. He was an uncle of two of the wives of Henry VIII: Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, and played a major role in the machinations behind these marriages. After falling from favor in 1546, he was stripped of the dukedom and imprisoned in the Tower, avoiding execution when the King died. He was released on the accession of Queen Mary I. He aided Mary in securing her throne, setting the stage for alienation between his Catholic family and the Protestant royal line that would be continued by Queen Elizabeth I.
      Howard was the eldest son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1443– 1524), and his first wife, Elizabeth (d. 1497), the daughter of Frederick Tilney and widow of Humphrey Bourchier. He was descended in the female line from Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, the sixth son of King Edward I. Both his father, then styled Earl of Surrey and his grandfather, John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, fought for King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth, in which the latter was killed. The family's titles were forfeited after the victory of King Henry VII at Bosworth.
      Howard's first marriage was politically advantageous. On 4 February 1495 he married Anne of York (1475– 1511), the fifth daughter of King Edward IV and the sister-in-law of King Henry VII. The couple had four children, none of whom survived to adulthood.
      Howard was an able soldier, and was often employed in military operations. In 1497 he served in a campaign against the Scots under the command of his father, who knighted him on 30 September 1497. He was made a Knight of the Garter after the accession of King Henry VIII, and became the King's close companion, with lodgings at court. On 4 May 1513 he was appointed Lord Admiral and on 9 September helped to defeat the Scots at the Battle of Flodden. Anne of York died in 1511, and early in 1513 he married Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, and Eleanor Percy, the daughter of Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland.
      On 1 February 1514 Howard's father, then Earl of Surrey, was created Duke of Norfolk, and by letters patent issued on the same day Howard was created Earl of Surrey for life. Over the next few years he served the King in a variety of ways. In September 1514 he escorted the King's sister Princess Mary to France for her forthcoming marriage. In 1517 he quelled a May day riot in London with the use of soldiers.
      On 10 March 1520, Surrey was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland. By July 1520 Surrey entered upon the thankless task of endeavoring to keep Ireland in order. His letters contain accounts of attempts to pacify the rival factions of Kildare and Ormonde, and are full of demands for more money and troops.
      At the end of 1521 Surrey was recalled from Ireland to take command of the English fleet in naval operations against France. His ships were ill-provisioned, and his warfare consisted of a series of raids upon the French coast for the purpose of inflicting all the damage possible. In July 1522 he burned Morlaix, in September laid waste the country round Boulogne, and spread devastation on every side, until the winter brought back the fleet to England.
      On 4 December 1522 Surrey was made Lord Treasurer upon his father's resignation of the office, and on 21 May 1524 he succeeded his father as 3rd Duke of Norfolk. His liking for war brought him into conflict with Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, who preferred diplomacy in the conduct of foreign affairs. In 1523 Wolsey had secured to the Duke of Suffolk the reversion of the office of Earl Marshal which had been held by Norfolk's father, and in 1525 the Duke of Richmond had replaced Norfolk as Lord Admiral. Finding himself pushed aside, Norfolk spent considerable time away from court in 1525– 7 and 1528.
      In the mid 1520s Norfolk's niece Anne Boleyn had caught the King's eye, and Norfolk's political fortunes revived with his involvement in the King's attempt to have his marriage to Queen Catherine of Aragon annulled. By 1529 matters of state were being increasingly handled by Norfolk, Suffolk and the Boleyns, who pressed the King to remove Wolsey. In October the King sent Norfolk and Suffolk to obtain the great seal from the Cardinal. In November Wolsey was arrested on a charge of treason, but died before trial. Norfolk benefited from Wolsey's fall, becoming the King's leading councilor and applying himself energetically in the King's efforts to find a way out of his marriage to Queen Katherine. His loyalty and service to the King brought him ample rewards. He received grants of monastic lands in Norfolk and Suffolk, was employed on diplomatic missions, and was created a knight of the French Order of St Michael in 1532 and Earl Marshal of England on 28 May 1533. As Lord High Steward, he presided at the trial of his niece, Queen Anne Boleyn, in May 1536.
      Surrey's marriage to his second wife, Elizabeth, which had apparently been mutually affectionate at first, deteriorated in 1527 when he took a mistress, Elizabeth Holland (d. 1547/8), whom he installed in the Howard household. Elizabeth Stafford formally separated from her husband in the 1530s. She claimed that in March 1534 the Duke 'locked me up in a chamber, [and] took away my jewels and apparel', and then moved her to Redbourn, Hertfordshire, where she lived a virtual prisoner with a meager annual allowance of only £200. She also claimed to have been physically maltreated by the Duke and by household servants.
      When the Pilgrimage of Grace broke out in Lincolnshire and the northern counties late in 1536, Norfolk shared command of the King's forces with the Earl of Shrewsbury, persuading the rebels to disperse by promising them a pardon and that Parliament would consider their grievances. However, when further rebellions erupted in January 1537 he carried out a policy of brutal retribution.
      By 1539 Norfolk was seriously challenging the religious reforms of the King's chief minister Thomas Cromwell. In that year the King sought to have Parliament put an end to diversity in religious opinion. On 5 May the House of Lords appointed a committee to consider questions of doctrine. Although he was not a member of the committee, on 16 May Norfolk presented six conservative articles of religion to Parliament for consideration. On 30 May, the Six Articles and the penalties for failure to conform to them were enacted into law, and on 28 June received royal assent.
      On 29 June 1539, Norfolk, Suffolk and Cromwell dined with the King as guests of Archbishop Cranmer. During a heated discussion about Cardinal Wolsey, Cromwell charged Norfolk with disloyalty and Norfolk called Cromwell a liar. Their mutual hostility was now out in the open. Cromwell inadvertently played into Norfolk's hands by taking the initiative in the King's marriage to Anne of Cleves. The King's disillusionment with Anne's physical appearance when he met her in January 1540 and his desire after the wedding had taken place to have the marriage annulled gave Norfolk an opportunity to bring down his enemy. On 10 June 1540 Cromwell was arrested at a Privy Council meeting on charges of high treason, and Norfolk personally 'tore the St George from his neck'. On 9 July 1540 Henry's marriage to Anne of Cleves was annulled. On 28 July 1540 Cromwell was executed, and on the same day the King wed Norfolk's niece Catherine Howard as his fifth wife. As a result of this marriage, for a time Norfolk enjoyed political prominence, royal favor and material rewards.
      However, when Catherine's premarital sexual indiscretions and her alleged adultery with Sir Thomas Culpeper were revealed to the King by Archbishop Cranmer, the King's wrath turned on the Howard family, who were accused of concealing her misconduct. Queen Catherine was condemned by a bill of attainder and executed on 13 February 1542. Several other members of the Howard family were sent to the Tower, including Norfolk's stepmother, the Dowager Duchess of Norfolk. However the French ambassador Marillac wrote on 17 January 1541 that Norfolk had not only escaped punishment, but had apparently been restored to his 'full former credit and authority.
      Norfolk was appointed Lieutenant-General north of Trent on 29 January 1541, and Captain-General in a campaign against the Scots in August 1542. In June 1543 he declared war on France in the King's name and was appointed Lieutenant-General of the army. During the campaign of May– October 1544 he besieged Montreuil, while the King captured Boulogne before returning home. Complaining of lack of provisions and munitions, Norfolk eventually raised the siege of Montreuil, and realizing that Boulogne could not realistically be held by the English for long, left it garrisoned and withdrew to Calais, for which he was severely rebuked by the King.
      The Duke died at Kenninghall on 25 August 1554 and was buried at St. Michael's Church at Framlingham in Suffolk. He was survived by two of the three children of his second marriage: his younger son, Thomas created Viscount Howard of Bindon in 1559, and his daughter Mary. Although there is debate on the topic, it appears that Norfolk had another daughter Katherine, who was briefly married to Norfolk's ward, Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby, and died on 15 March 1530. The Duke's property passed into the hands of the Crown during the minority of his grandson and heir, Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk.

      --- on FamilySearch 10 May 2018